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Elijah Gray
Elijah Gray

Five Of The Most Common C High Quality



Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis. However, hepatitis is often caused by a virus. In the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.




Five of the Most Common C



The five species most commonly associated with candidiasis are Candida albicans (65.3%), Candida glabrata (11.3%), Candida tropicalis (7.2%), C. parapsilosis (6.0%), and Candida krusei (2.4%) (Table 1) (Pfaller et al. 2010b). The number of infections is rising, although there was a slight drop between 2005 and 2007. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated, but the proportion relative to other Candida species has decreased over time (from 71% to 65%). This was accompanied by an increasing incidence of C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis.


The incidence also varies substantially with geographical location. C. glabrata is highest in Asia-Pacific and the European Union (EU), whereas the incidence of C. tropicalis infection in Africa and the Middle East is approaching three times that of the EU. C. parapsilosis is highest in North America and Latin America. The increase in C. glabrata in particular is associated with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, the most commonly used azole drug (Pfaller and Diekema 2004; Klevay et al. 2008; Chapeland-Leclerc et al. 2010; Alexander et al. 2013).


Allele-specific gene expression was detected even in C. albicans grown in rich media (Muzzey et al. 2013). Almost 200 genes have premature termination codons in one allele, and in the majority, expression is biased toward the intact allele. Muzzey et al. (2013) found that indels are enriched in regulatory (promoter) regions, although there was no obvious correlation with allele-specific gene expression. Interestingly, the net effect of indels is to increase repeat length over evolutionary time, which may result from selective forces on nucleosome positioning.


Somewhat surprisingly, Als3 appears to be restricted to C. albicans (Jackson et al. 2009), which may partially explain the dominance of C. albicans as an infectious organism. Recombinant vaccines directed against C. albicans have mostly been generated using the amino terminus of Als3 (Spellberg et al. 2006; Ibrahim et al. 2013). However, the vaccine is also protective against infection with Staphylococcus aureus, suggesting that it has a broad range (Spellberg et al. 2008).


Visualization of EFG1 orthologs in the Candida Gene Order Browser. The diagram shows a screenshot from CGOB (cgob.ucd.ie; Fitzpatrick et al. 2010; Maguire et al. 2013) around the EFG1 gene in CTG clade species. Each horizontal line shows a chromosomal region, and each pillar indicates orthologs. All genes are shown at the same size. Breaks in synteny are indicated by changes in color. EFG1 lies between a tRNA gene (white) and orthologs of orf19.607 in most species (C. albicans isolates have an additional gene). In C. tropicalis, there has been an inversion adjacent to the tRNA relative to C. albicans (indicated by gray lines with orange tips), and EFG1 has been lost.


Expansion of the EPA genes is mostly restricted to the pathogens and appears to have occurred in a lineage-specific manner. C. bracarensis and C. nivariensis share many EPA duplications, suggesting they may have occurred in the common ancestor and were subsequently lost (or possibly pseudogenized) in the nonpathogen N. delphensis. Amplification in C. glabrata occurred independently. Correlation of EPA expansion with pathogenesis and the observation that they are required for adherence in C. glabrata suggest that this family is important for virulence. The C. glabrata genome also has expanded YPS and MNT3 arrays, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism. It is therefore likely that C. glabrata has undergone species-specific gene amplification, which may explain why it is significantly more virulent than the other pathogenic species within the Nakaseomyces group.


RNA-seq analysis has also been important for annotation of other genomes, such as C. parapsilosis (Guida et al. 2011) and C. dubliniensis (Grumaz et al. 2013). In C. parapsilosis, several hundred new genes were identified, and approximately 900 gene models were corrected (Guida et al. 2011). It is becoming increasingly clear that the high level of unknown transcripts, or even antisense transcripts, in Candida species is indicative of a layer of regulation that is at present almost completely unexplored and is likely to be an important focus in the future. Even in the absence of transcriptional data, however, comparative genomics applications are very useful for identifying protein-coding regions. For example, comparing the genomes of six species in the CTG clade led to the identification of 91 novel ORFs in C. albicans (Butler et al. 2009). A more detailed analysis uncovered more than 1500 previously unannotated ORFs in 13 genomes (Maguire et al. 2013) (Fig. 2).


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.


There are 5 main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and, together, are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer.


Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is present in the faeces of infected persons and is most often transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. Certain sex practices can also spread HAV. Infections are in many cases mild, with most people making a full recovery and remaining immune from further HAV infections. However, HAV infections can also be severe and life threatening. Most people in areas of the world with poor sanitation have been infected with this virus. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HAV.


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mostly transmitted through exposure to infective blood. This may happen through transfusions of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. Sexual transmission is also possible, but is much less common. There is no vaccine for HCV.


Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is mostly transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. HEV is a common cause of hepatitis outbreaks in developing parts of the world and is increasingly recognized as an important cause of disease in developed countries. Safe and effective vaccines to prevent HEV infection have been developed but are not widely available.


Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C endogenously, so it is an essential dietary component [1].


Fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamin C (see Table 2) [12]. Citrus fruits, tomatoes and tomato juice, and potatoes are major contributors of vitamin C to the American diet [8]. Other good food sources include red and green peppers, kiwifruit, broccoli, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, and cantaloupe (see Table 2) [8,12]. Although vitamin C is not naturally present in grains, it is added to some fortified breakfast cereals. The vitamin C content of food may be reduced by prolonged storage and by cooking because ascorbic acid is water soluble and is destroyed by heat [6,8]. Steaming or microwaving may lessen cooking losses. Fortunately, many of the best food sources of vitamin C, such as fruits and vegetables, are usually consumed raw. Consuming five varied servings of fruits and vegetables a day can provide more than 200 mg of vitamin C.


Today, vitamin C deficiency and scurvy are rare in developed countries [8]. Overt deficiency symptoms occur only if vitamin C intake falls below approximately 10 mg/day for many weeks [5-8,22,23]. Vitamin C deficiency is uncommon in developed countries but can still occur in people with limited food variety.


Due to its function as an antioxidant and its role in immune function, vitamin C has been promoted as a means to help prevent and/or treat numerous health conditions. This section focuses on four diseases and disorders in which vitamin C might play a role: cancer (including prevention and treatment), cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts, and the common cold.


Epidemiologic evidence suggests that higher consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower risk of most types of cancer, perhaps, in part, due to their high vitamin C content [1,2]. Vitamin C can limit the formation of carcinogens, such as nitrosamines [2,29], in vivo; modulate immune response [2,4]; and, through its antioxidant function, possibly attenuate oxidative damage that can lead to cancer [1].


At this time, the evidence is inconsistent on whether dietary vitamin C intake affects cancer risk. Results from most clinical trials suggest that modest vitamin C supplementation alone or with other nutrients offers no benefit in the prevention of cancer.


Results from most clinical intervention trials have failed to show a beneficial effect of vitamin C supplementation on the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, a secondary prevention trial involving 8,171 women aged 40 years or older with a history of cardiovascular disease, supplementation with 500 mg/day vitamin C for a mean of 9.4 years showed no overall effect on cardiovascular events [63]. Similarly, vitamin C supplementation (500 mg/day) for a mean follow-up of 8 years had no effect on major cardiovascular events in male physicians enrolled in the Physicians' Health Study II [64]. 041b061a72


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